1.Unjust division of Radcliffe.
According to the plan of June 3rd, 1947, it was decided that Punjab and Bengal will be divided into Muslim and Non-Muslim majority areas. Muslim majority areas would become a part of Pakistan whereas the remaining areas would be included in India. It was agreed that a boundary commission should be constituted and its arbitration should be added by the parties. Sir Radcliffe an English law expert was assigned these responsibilities, Sir Radcliffe influenced and manipulated by Sir Lord Mountbatten made an unjust and unfair partition. Conspiringly some of West Muslim majority areas were included in India and the agreed map.According to the population and the line drawn on it was altered. Radcliffe unjustly deprived Pakistan of some important areas. Three of the Tehsils of Gurdaspur district i.e. Gurdaspur, Pathankot and Batala.Two Tehsils of Ferozepur and some other areas comprising of an overwhelming population Majority of the Muslims one-handed over to India. India was granted access to the state of Jammu and Kashmir through inclusion of Gurdaspur in India. Radcliffe not only deprived the Muslims of their areas and right but also create the problem of Kashmir issue, he planted a seed of enmity between the two Nations that is still a bone of contention between the two.
2.Rehabilitation of Refugees.
After the establishment of Pakistan, the Muslims living in India decided to come into their new Homeland as they found their lives unsafe there. Millions of families journey towards Pakistan leaving all their belongings in India. These homeless ruined, miserable, and stressed Muslims were accommodated temporarily in refugee camps. The Government of Pakistan made accelerated planning to provide them with food, homes, medicines and other necessities. The local people welcomed their Muslim brothers with open arms. With joint efforts of government and people of Pakistan, the requirements of the refugees were met.
Another big early problem of Pakistan was to construct an administrative structure. The Non-Muslim government officials previously which were working in Pakistan had shifted to India. While going to India, they had also destroyed their official records. There was a shortage of officials to run state affairs. There was also a shortage of furniture, stationary and type-writers. Most of the government offices started their functions in open air.
There was a lot to be done in the early days but it was extremely difficult for a newly established state to run the officers without the officials and without necessary equipments. It was a great problem for Pakistan to reconstruct the administrative machineries.
4.Distribution of Assets.
The Indian rulers did injustice in the proportional distribution of the assets too. They continued to avoid giving Pakistan its due share, they used every possible device to destroy the economy of Pakistan. They withheld agreed share of Pakistan’s assets at the time of partition rupees from hundred billion were deposited in “Reserve Bank” of United India. This amount was to be divided between both the countries, proportional share of Pakistan was Rupees 750 million. India was not prepared to give Pakistan its due share. Forced by the continuous demands made by Pakistan to maintain its credibility, at International level. India issued an amount of Rs.700 million the remaining amount of Rs.50 million is still to be paid by India. A meeting between the representative of both the countries was held in November 1947 and an agreement was made, both the countries confirmed the agreement but it has not been implemented so far.…..
5.Division of Army.
After the partition of sub-continent, it was also necessary to divide Military assets proportionally, but justice was not done in the division too. India wanted to weaken Pakistan so that it was forced to be a part of India. Before the partition, the commander of United India did not like armed forces to be divided. He wanted to keep all the forces under a single command. The Muslim League did not agree to his stand-point and insisted on the division of Military resources and assets between the two countries.
The British government had to accept this demand. It was decided that army assets between the two countries will be divided in the proportion of 64% India and 36% to Pakistan. Ordinance factories running in United India, Not to mention not a single one was set up in the areas included in Pakistan. To mention of shifting and ordinance factory into Pakistan, The Indian Cabinet was not willing even to shift small part of machinery in Pakistan after a long discussion, it was decided that in Pakistan there will be given Rs.60 million to set an ordinance factory of its own.
but its formula for the distribution of general military assets was rejected by India and Pakistan is required of its due share. It was an effort to weaken Pakistan so that it was forced again to become the part of India.
6.The River Water issue.
The river water issue stood as another crisis and major early problem of Pakistan. The partition of the subcontinent affected the national flow of rivers, Punjab and Sindh are irrigated by River Indus and its tributaries i.e. Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Satluj and Beas. Satluj and Beas pass through India before they enter Pakistan. India wanted to destroy the agriculture and economy of Pakistan in 1948. India stopped the water channel. Also that Radcliffe handed over most of the head-work areas to India. India also decided to build a dam on River Sutlej but Pakistan strongly protested against it.
7.Issue of States.
During the British rule, there were 635 princely states in India.When the time of freedom approached its near,The people of these states started to think about the